THE CYTOKINE RELEASE ASSAY (CRA)   Even before interleukin-1 was cloned (1984), some adverse effects of early immunomodulatory drugs, such as levamisole or tilorone, were hypothesized to be due to 'direct macrophage activation'. Subsequently, a variety of vaccines, therapeutic proteins or monoclonal antibodies were shown to induce...

Caster JM, Patel AN, Zhang T, Wang A (2017) Investigational nanomedicines in 2016: a review of nanotherapeutics currently undergoing clinical trials. WIRES Nanomed Nanobiotechnol. 9(1) e1416. Since the introduction of liposomal doxorubicin in clinical practice (1995), approx. 50 nanoparticle-based drugs have been approved for therapeutic...